Microsoft’s DoWhy Library for Python greatly simplifies the task of estimating causal effects. If you or someone you know is involved in data analysis, it is worth your while to see what DoWhy can do for you.
I have spent a little time working with the library and although I have no coding examples at this time, the powerful nature of this library prevents me from waiting to share it.
Visit the DoWhy github page for more details on the DoWhy library. The information and documentation presented on the site provides sufficient detail to download and start working with the DoWhy library.
Research In Motion (RIM) is making news for all the right reasons as of late – a sharp contrast from a short year ago. All of the reviews I’ve been reading thus far suggest that RIM’s new BlackBerry 10 is above and beyond expectations. The software technology has even been described by some as disruptive. Though the stakes remain high for both RIM and investors alike, strong prospects of a successful product launch are definitely encouraging.
Success will certainly help to re-establish RIM as a leader in a highly competitive smart phone market that they themselves created and at one time dominated. The competitive aspects of smart phones tend to focus as much, if not more, on technology than price. RIM’s BlackBerry 10 is poised to introduce radical changes to both hardware and software as depicted in the many “leaked” pictures and videos.
The number of available “apps” always seems to be a point of contention and a measure of “acceptance” by tablet and smart phone developers and users alike. Although the number of apps for the new BlackBerry 10 continues to grow at a rather astounding rate, I was even more encouraged to learn that RIM is more interested in quality not quantity.
Success will also give cause for many to reflect on RIM’s rebirth along the way. As I’ve mentioned in previous posts, Apple was once in a very similar position. Unlike Apple, however, there is no “Microsoft” to help RIM to get back on their feet. Perhaps, through all of this, RIM has already re-affirmed that some of life’s lessons we were taught growing up bear a greater significance on our future successes than we would have thought otherwise.
Focus – Strategy, vision, goals and objectives
Patience is a virtue – You can’t rush success
You have to believe it to see it – Stick to your vision
Don’t give up – Persistence to succeed, resistance to failure
No Noise – Eliminate distractions (real or perceived)
Lean execution is not a term I would use to describe RIM’s journey leading up to the launch of the BlackBerry 10, especially after missing several launch dates already and stumbling for what seemed to be months to even commit to the new launch date of January 30, 2013. However, that they even survived this past year of turmoil does say something about the culture of the company and the people who work there. The vision for the BlackBerry 10 remained as the focal point for hardware and software development despite a significant management shakeup, a substantial decrease in market share, loss of shareholder confidence, and rapidly declining stock prices.
A shift in marketing strategy and providing incentives for software developers around the globe has certainly helped RIM to promote and create what is touted to be the “next big thing” to hit the smart phone market. I think the vision, drive, and spirit to survive are the real underlying factors that sustained the company through the worst of times by focusing on what will bring the best of times. If the launch of the BlackBerry 10 is as successful as hoped, I’m sure many others will also look beyond the product and delve into the culture at RIM that brought the BlackBerry and the company back to life.
Your feedback matters
If you have any questions, comments, or topics you would like us to address, please feel free to contact us by using the comment space below or by sending an email to LeanExecution@Gmail.com. We look forward to hearing from you.
Some people can hardly contain their excitement when a company like Apple is thriving with sky high profits in the midst of a dismal global economy. Yet, this same excitement is seldom shared when banks or oil companies report similar results. Wouldn’t we all prefer reduced fees or lower gas prices over excessive profits from the very companies that portend to serve our best interests?
This past week a colleague forwarded an article from cultofmac.com titled Apple’s Astonishing Profit in Context. My colleague’s opinion of Apple’s incredible performance is also echoed in the article itself. Of course, I would be hard pressed to disagree with them as I’ve written many times before that “The proof of wisdom is in the results.” The following quote from the article puts Apple’s “wisdom” in perspective:
From October 2011 to September 2012 Apple made more money than Microsoft, Ebay, Google, Yahoo! Facebook and Amazon combined. In that same period, Dell, Asus, Intel, Acer, IBM, Lenovo, and HP (basically the entire PC industry) only made $19.3 billion in profit, which is less than half of Apple’s profit.
Who can argue?
Apple has effectively advanced available technologies into unique devices that have dominated several market segments including: Computers (Mac), Smart Phones (iPhone), Tablets (iPad), and Media Players (iPod). Although Apple did not necessarily “invent” the core technologies that define their devices, they did find innovative ways to integrate them to provide an extremely user friendly experience.
Hardware is not Apple’s only source of revenue as the “App Store” is yet another venue that continues to feed Apple’s bottom line. If I understand the terms correctly, Apple receives at least 30% of every App Store purchase and as Apple is quick to mention more times than not, the number of available apps is in the hundreds of thousands and continues to grow every day. That in and of itself is an incredible feat.
Many would suggest that there is no competition when it comes to Apple’s products and, to some extent, there may be some truth to that. The question is, “What really sets Apple apart from it’s competitors?” I contend that a key component of Apple’s success is driven by their exclusive integration of the iOS operating system into virtually all of their devices. When compared to the number of competing companies selling electronic devices based on the Windows and Android operating systems, we quickly learn that Apple is the sole proprietor of it’s core hardware / software environment and the current court battles with Samsung strongly suggest that Apple wants to keep it that way.
In other words, while there are a number of competitors in any given segment, Apple has no direct competitors that manufacture computers using their operating system thus allowing them to command the price at which their devices are sold. In this context, Apple can determine it’s own price points, void of any threat from a competing manufacturer. From a financial perspective, Apple’s strategy to stay the course is a huge success – at least it was until now.
The wisdom of Apple’s strategy to integrate hardware and software is perhaps a lesson learned by Microsoft as they too have joined the tablet race with the introduction of the Surface RT and soon to be launched Surface Pro. There is, however, a very stark difference. Whether Microsoft intended to become a tablet manufacturer is open to debate but Microsoft did not exclude or attempt to prevent their competitors from developing devices based on the Windows operating system. Microsoft certainly intentioned to develop a hardware environment that will best reflect the capabilities and performance of the Windows 8 operating system.
Competition inspires innovation as manufacturers attempt to earn a bigger share of the market with more differentiating features and ultimately lower prices. As a result, margins are strained on Windows 8 devices and competing products using Google’s Linux based Android operating system among others. Unlike the exclusive Apple-opoly market, consumers continue to reap the greater benefit of an open competitive market in the “non-Apple” world.
There is indeed a price to be paid to sustain a company that attempts to maintain an exclusive monopoly in the market place. I contend that Apple has more to lose and very little to gain as competitors continue to define and differentiate themselves in their applicable market segments.
The “App” Store – Remember Your Roots
If Apple’s devices are the cash cow, then the App Store is the cash calf. As mentioned above, Apple’s take is 30% of every App Store purchase. For a developer, losing 30% for the opportunity to sell an “app may be a great deal but … to a company like Microsoft, nothing could be further from the truth. Presently, Microsoft is subject to the same “App Store” rules of engagement as any other developer and this has now become a major point of contention between the two companies.
When it comes to Microsoft, Apple’s memory seems to be lapsing. In 1997 Apple (very much like RIM) was struggling to stay afloat and Microsoft’s Bill Gates stepped in to bail them out. It seems this gesture of goodwill has waned as Apple has subsequently grown to become a monopoly of it’s own making. In the world of Windows, Microsoft’s Office suite is unparalleled and I suggest the same can only be true in the world of Apple.
It appears that relationships between people still matter in the world of business and we can only wonder if Steve Jobs would feel differently about giving Microsoft a break in the App Store. Clearly, Apple would be a different company – or not exist at all – without the injection of Microsoft’s support as announced on August 6, 1997 at Mac World Boston. As Steve Jobs himself said during the conference:
“We have to let go of this notion that for Apple to win, Microsoft has to lose.” – Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs encouraged the audience in this video to “think differently”. Perhaps those who have succeeded Steve Jobs have forgotten (or never had the opportunity to remember) what it was like all those years ago when they were struggling to just to stay afloat. If there was ever a move to burn bridges with a once “rival turned ally”, the app store’s rules of engagement is one of them.
Remember RIM and the BlackBerry? They too have an exclusive operating system and hardware platform that at one time lead the smart phone segment by storm. The BlackBerry Messaging (BBM) service between BlackBerry devices is second to none and now includes BBM voice calls. Apple’s iPhone was a major disruption to both hardware and software as we knew it, offering users a substantially improved experience with available technologies. RIM’s market share and stock prices decreased dramatically for failing to introduce fresh, innovative technologies in a timely manner. Whether RIM’s OS10 can reignite the passion for their products and the profits in kind remains to be seen.
So hopefully what you’ve seen here today are some beginning steps that give you some confidence that we too are going to think differently and serve the people that have been buying our products since the beginning. Because a lot of times people think their crazy, but in that craziness we see genius and those are the people we’re making tools for. – Steve Jobs
Today, RIM is in a place where Apple once stood. Unfortunately for RIM, there is no rival stepping up to bail them out. In today’s world, rivals simply wait for their competitors to fold or file for bankruptcy before swooping in to reap what’s left behind. It is unfortunate, but as time will tell, consumers who are left with empty pockets will soon part ways with companies that choose to monopolize a market that serves the best interests of their shareholders and the bottom line.
Value is Not Market Share – In the delicate ecosystem of finance and business, the underlying theme is the perception of “value” for the consumer, the company, and it’s shareholders. I commend and praise Apple for the design and quality of their hardware with few exceptions although I have expressed my dissatisfaction with the frequency at which these devices change. As for their software offerings, I am also somewhat underwhelmed, at least from a business perspective. As for connectivity, Apple provides a seamless bridge between devices with unparalleled ease.
However, knowing that up to 40% of the purchase price is gross margin, the question for Apple devices still remains, “Does the price reflect the true market value?” Fundamental economics would suggest that the value of a product or service is determined by the price the consumer is willing to pay. I contend that in a society based on capitalism, competition will yield a price that better approximates the true value of a product or service.
“Success breeds complacency. Complacency breeds failure. Only the paranoid survive.” — Andrew Grove, co-founder Intel
Competition = Innovation – The Windows 8 and Android operating systems give us a greater appreciation for how real competition can lead to innovative hardware and software technologies at lower prices that benefit consumers versus those that ultimately aim to benefit shareholders. RIM’s new BlackBerry 10 reaffirms the inertia that exists within a company where only two options exist – to survive or die. With that inertia, we now see momentum building for the unveiling and launch of another new and innovative solution in hand held devices from BlackBerry.
Hansei / Reflection – Success can be both a blessing and a curse. Too few companies take the time to reflect on their history to appreciate their current state of affairs. Very few companies like Apple can claim to have risen from the ashes to become a self sufficient world renowned icon. However, in their wake, Apple’s success has also led to a certain “ego” or culture of arrogance that suggests “nothing can stop us now.” As we consider the current court battles with both rivals and allies, it’s difficult to discern which is which.
Collaboration = Mutual Successes – Success is seldom the result of one person’s effort and typically the result is greater than the sum of its parts.
We can choose to fight for the current state to preserve “what is now” or we can – in the words of Steve Jobs – “think differently”.
There is always a better way and more than one solution
This certainly seems to be true in the tablet world as Microsoft unveils one of its own – the Surface. Taking a note from Apple, Microsoft has integrated hardware and software into a unique solution that is sure to compete directly with the iPad.
From a lean perspective, I can’t help but admire the evolution of electronics to become ever smaller and ever faster than the generations that precede them. While the Surface is Microsoft’s debut into the tablet market, it has much to offer as a strong contender to Apple’s iPad. Microsoft may be a little late coming into the tablet game but perhaps their timing is appropriate. Apple has played their cards giving Microsoft the opportunity to be “second but better”.
Although reviews are mixed, I’m encouraged by the initial product offering from Microsoft. From the outset, there are a number of physical features that immediately set the Surface apart from the iPad such as an integrated keyboard and cover, a pop out “kick stand”, and included stylus. Windows 8 appears to be the operating system that will dominate both the Surface and the PC desktop / laptop environment in the near future. This pairing offers a much more flexible data storage and transfer solution than is available in competitor products.
You be the judge
Rather than describe the Surface, you can judge the Surface for yourself as presented in this “teaser” preview video:
The full keynote presentation by Microsoft appears in the video below:
The Price of Ownership
Although pricing has not been stated explicitly, Microsoft suggests that it should be in line with other tablets and netbooks already available on the market. Hopefully it will be cheaper than it’s intended competitors. In Ontario, Canada, Apple’s 64GB iPad retails at $895.00 and, after buying your case, keyboard, and stylus, the cost to “start-up” your iPad can easily swell to over $1,100.00 after taxes and the purchase of a few “useful apps”. The price of an iPad is not all-inclusive. It is worth noting that the iPad requires an additional line (phone number) on your cellular plan and, since data is all “in the cloud”, your monthly data usage rate is sure to rise as well. Even RIM‘s (Research in Motion) PlayBook tether option is admirable as a cost-effective solution as it “co-exists” with your BlackBerrySmartPhone.
The need for dominance – “apps”
Apple boasts that over 500,000 apps are available for the iPhone and the iPad. From a consumer perspective it is virtually impossible to evaluate all of the “apps” that are available and finding the one that will do what you want is even more daunting. Most reviews are brief or there is insufficient data collected to provide an effective rating. It could be argued that apps are relatively inexpensive so the financial risks or exposure for an error in judgement is minimized when choosing an app.
Apps for other platforms are growing in number, however, they are still far from approaching the scope of Apple’s app store. Now that Microsoft’s Surface has been introduced, app developers are sure to find themselves wondering which platform is deserving of their time and effort.
I suggest that a need for core dominant apps exists – much like the wars that ensued between spreadsheet and word processor developers of years past. Today, anyone with a computer, time, and a desire to code can develop an app. Apple certainly makes it easy by providing all the tools you need to get started including a fully integrated programming environment. With tools at everyone’s disposal and a small price for admission, it is no wonder that so many apps are available.
Microsoft may very well be the contender to develop real “useful” apps that will truly make tablets even more relevant for business just as they did with Office 2010 for the desktop. Microsoft Office can be found on virtually every computer I’ve seen in business and there are very few exceptions.
The Wait Begins
We’ll have to wait and see what happens in the tablet market. For now, it appears that Apple finally has a true competitor that may be cause to stimulate even more innovation going forward. It is also worth noting that Google just released the Nexus Android based tablet to compete with Amazon’s Kindle. All of this is happening as RIM (Research In Motion) is struggling to stay afloat. Some may even say, “It can only get better.”